CD38 as Immunotherapeutic Target in Light Chain Amyloidosis and Multiple Myeloma-Association With Molecular Entities, Risk, Survival, and Mechanisms of Upfront Resistance

Anja Seckinger, Jens Hillengass, Martina Emde, Susanne Beck, Christoph Kimmich, Tobias Dittrich, Michael Hundemer, Anna Jauch, Ute Hegenbart, Marc-Steffen Raab, Anthony D Ho, Stefan Schönland, Dirk Hose

Onderzoeksoutput: Articlepeer review

27 Citaten (Scopus)


Monoclonal antibodies against the cell surface antigen CD38, e.g., isatuximab, daratumumab, or Mor202, have entered the therapeutic armamentarium in multiple myeloma due to single agent overall response rates of 29 vs. 36 vs. 31%, effectivity in combination regimen, e.g., with lenalidomide or bortezomib plus dexamethasone, and tolerable side effects. Despite clinical use, many questions remain. In this manuscript, we address three of these: first, upfront CD38 target-expression in AL-amyloidosis, monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS), asymptomatic, symptomatic, and relapsed multiple myeloma. Second, relation of CD38-expression to survival, disease stages, molecular entities, and high-risk definitions. Third, alternative splicing or lack of CD38-expression as potential mechanisms of upfront resistance. We assessed CD138-purified plasma cell samples from 196 AL-amyloidosis, 62 MGUS, 259 asymptomatic, 764 symptomatic, and 90 relapsed myeloma patients, including longitudinal pairs of asymptomatic/symptomatic (n = 34) and symptomatic/relapsed myeloma (n = 57) regarding interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (n = 1,380), CD38-expression by gene expression profiling (n = 1,371), RNA-sequencing (n = 593), and flow cytometry (n = 800). Samples of normal bone marrow plasma cells (n = 10), memory B-cells (n = 9), polyclonal plasmablastic cells (n = 9), and human myeloma cell lines (n = 54) were used as comparators. CD38 was expressed in all malignant plasma cell samples, but significantly lower compared to normal plasma cells with small but significant downregulation in longitudinal sample pairs. Higher CD38 expression was associated with the presence of t(4;14) and high-risk according to the UAMS70-gene score, lower expression was associated with del17p13 and hyperdiploidy in symptomatic myeloma as well as t(11;14) in asymptomatic myeloma. Higher CD38-expression was associated with slower progression to symptomatic and relapsed myeloma and better overall survival in the latter two entities. CD38 expression, t(4;14), del17p13, and gain of 1q21 are independently prognostic in multivariate analysis. By contrast, high CD38-expression is associated with adverse survival in AL-amyloidosis. Regarding mechanisms of upfront anti-CD38-treatment resistance, lack of CD38-expression and alternative splicing of receptor binding-sites could be excluded. Here, of the two protein coding CD38-transcripts CD38-001 (eight-exon, full length) and CD38-005 (truncated), CD38-001 conveyed >97% of reads spanning the respective CD38 splice junction.

Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's15
TijdschriftFrontiers in Immunology
StatusPublished - 2018


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