Recently, we published a first anatomical Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) atlas regarding white matter tracts in the canine brain. The purpose of this study was to show the significance of DTI in the revelation of the white matter fibres in the feline brain (i.e. to obtain an anatomical DTI atlas of images) and to descriptively compare these to previously obtained white matter fibre images of the canine brain. DTI MR Images of 4 cats euthanised for reasons other than neurological disorders were obtained with a 3 T system. Combined fractional anisotropic (FA) and directional maps were obtained within the hour after death. An experienced anatomist tracked white matter tracts of clinical relevance using the scanner software. After validation of these tracts, we compared relevant neurological connections between the cat and the dog. Comparison of cerebral structures between different species is easier when the three dimensional anatomy is visualized by using DTI. 3D rendered DTI images clearly show major differences in neurological architecture between cats and dogs e.g. the more important space occupying role of the limbic system, and the less diffuse, less nodular, less pronounced and thinner fibre bundles in the feline brain compared to the canine brain (except for the cerebellum different parts connecting fibres passing through the brainstem which are pronouncedly developed). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.