TY - JOUR

T1 - Conjunction and Negation of Natural Concepts: A Quantum-theoretic Modeling

AU - Sozzo, Sandro

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - We perform two experiments with the aim to investigate the effects of negation on the combination of natural concepts. In the first experiment, we test the membership weights of a list of exemplars with respect to two concepts, e.g., {\it Fruits} and {\it Vegetables}, and their conjunction {\it Fruits And Vegetables}. In the second experiment, we test the membership weights of the same list of exemplars with respect to the same two concepts, but negating the second, e.g., {\it Fruits} and {\it Not Vegetables}, and again their conjunction {\it Fruits And Not Vegetables}. The collected data confirm existing results on conceptual combination, namely, they show dramatic deviations from the predictions of classical (fuzzy set) logic and probability theory. More precisely, they exhibit conceptual vagueness, gradeness of membership, overextension and double overextension of membership weights with respect to the given conjunctions. Then, we show that the quantum probability model in Fock space recently elaborated to model Hampton's data on concept conjunction (Hampton, 1988a) and disjunction (Hampton, 1988b) faithfully accords with the collected data. Our quantum-theoretic modeling enables to describe these non-classical effects in terms of genuine quantum effects, namely `contextuality', `superposition', `interference' and `emergence'. The obtained results confirm and strenghten the analysis in Aerts (2009a) and Sozzo (2014) on the identification of quantum aspects in experiments on conceptual vagueness. Our results can be inserted within the general research on the identification of quantum structures in cognitive and decision processes.

AB - We perform two experiments with the aim to investigate the effects of negation on the combination of natural concepts. In the first experiment, we test the membership weights of a list of exemplars with respect to two concepts, e.g., {\it Fruits} and {\it Vegetables}, and their conjunction {\it Fruits And Vegetables}. In the second experiment, we test the membership weights of the same list of exemplars with respect to the same two concepts, but negating the second, e.g., {\it Fruits} and {\it Not Vegetables}, and again their conjunction {\it Fruits And Not Vegetables}. The collected data confirm existing results on conceptual combination, namely, they show dramatic deviations from the predictions of classical (fuzzy set) logic and probability theory. More precisely, they exhibit conceptual vagueness, gradeness of membership, overextension and double overextension of membership weights with respect to the given conjunctions. Then, we show that the quantum probability model in Fock space recently elaborated to model Hampton's data on concept conjunction (Hampton, 1988a) and disjunction (Hampton, 1988b) faithfully accords with the collected data. Our quantum-theoretic modeling enables to describe these non-classical effects in terms of genuine quantum effects, namely `contextuality', `superposition', `interference' and `emergence'. The obtained results confirm and strenghten the analysis in Aerts (2009a) and Sozzo (2014) on the identification of quantum aspects in experiments on conceptual vagueness. Our results can be inserted within the general research on the identification of quantum structures in cognitive and decision processes.

KW - Quantum cognition

KW - Concept theory

KW - Quantum modeling

U2 - 10.1016/j.jmp.2015.01.005

DO - 10.1016/j.jmp.2015.01.005

M3 - Article

VL - 66

SP - 83

EP - 102

JO - Journal of Mathematical Psychology

JF - Journal of Mathematical Psychology

SN - 0022-2496

ER -