Continental heat storage: contributions from the ground, inland waters, and permafrost thawing

F. J. Cuesta-Valero, H. Beltrami, A. García-García, G. Krinner, M. Langer, A. H. MacDougall, J. Nitzbon, J. Peng, K. von Schuckmann, S. I. Seneviratne, W. Thiery, I. Vanderkelen, T. Wu

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Samenvatting

Heat storage within the Earth system is a fundamental metric for understanding climate change. The current energy imbalance at the top of the atmosphere causes changes in energy storage within the ocean, the atmosphere, the cryosphere, and the continental landmasses. After the ocean, heat storage in land is the second largest term of the Earth heat inventory, affecting physical processes relevant to society and ecosystems, such as the stability of the soil carbon pool. Here, we present an update of the continental heat storage, combining for the first time the heat in the land subsurface, inland water bodies, and permafrost thawing. The continental landmasses stored 23.8 ± 2.0 × 1021 J during the period 1960–2020, but the distribution of heat among the three components is not homogeneous. The sensible diffusion of heat through the ground accounts for ∼90 % of the continental heat storage, with inland water bodies and permafrost degradation (i.e. latent heat) accounting for ∼0.7 % and ∼9 % of the continental heat, respectively. Although the inland water bodies and permafrost soils store less heat than the solid ground, we argue that their associated climate phenomena justify their monitoring and inclusion in the Earth heat inventory.
Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)609-627
Aantal pagina's19
TijdschriftEarth System Dynamics
Volume14
Nummer van het tijdschrift3
DOI's
StatusPublished - 16 mei 2023

Bibliografische nota

Funding Information:
This research has been supported by the Alexander von Humboldt-Stiftung (grant no. Research Fellowship), the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (grant no. DG 140576948), the Canada Research Chairs Program (grant no. CRC 230687), the Canadian Foundation for Innovation and the Digital Research Alliance of Canada (Compute Canada, AceNet), the Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung (grant no. 01LN1709A), and the Fonds Wetenschappelijk Onderzoek (grant no. FWOTM920).The article processing charges for this open-access publication were covered by the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ.

Funding Information:
Francisco José Cuesta-Valero is an Alexander von Humboldt Research Fellow at the Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ). Hugo Beltrami was supported by grants from the National Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada Discovery (grant no. NSERC DG 140576948), the Canada Research Chairs Program (grant no. CRC 230687), and the Canadian Foundation for Innovation and the Digital Research Alliance of Canada (Compute Canada, AceNet). Hugo Beltrami holds a Canada Research Chair in Climate Dynamics. Moritz Langer and Jan Nitzbon were supported by a grant from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF, project PermaRisk, grant no. 01LN1709A). Inne Vanderkelen is a research fellow at the Research Foundation Flanders (grant no. FWOTM920). The resources and services used in this work were provided by the VSC (Flemish Supercomputer Center) and were funded by the Research Foundation – Flanders (FWO) and the Flemish Government.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Francisco José Cuesta-Valero et al.

Copyright:
Copyright 2023 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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