Coupled-Cavity VCSEL with an Integrated Electro-Absorption Modulator: Small- and Large-Signal Modulation Analysis

Krassimir Panayotov, Johan Richard Schatz

Onderzoeksoutput: Article


Featured Application VCSELs are widely employed in Fiber to the Home links, computer networks and optical interconnects because of their low power consumption, small footprint, high reliability, easy packaging, single longitudinal mode emission, high modulation speed, low cost and circular output beam. Short- and medium-range optical communication links demand for continuous increase of VCSEL modulation speed. VCSEL direct modulation speed is however limited by the relaxation oscillation frequency and new approaches as, e.g., integrating VCSEL with an electro-absorption modulator (EAM) are required. Hereby, we demonstrate that an integrated EAM-VCSEL is capable of producing a resonantly enhanced, flat modulation response with ultrahigh bandwidth of 100Gbs for applications in optical communication links. We consider an integrated electro-absorption modulator within a coupled-cavity VCSEL structure (EAM-VCSEL). We derive expressions for the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the EAM-VCSEL for small-signal modulation of either VCSEL injection current or EAM losses. For current modulation, the cut-off frequency remains limited by relaxation oscillation frequency. For EAM loss modulation, the MTF curve is much flatter and its shape around the relaxation oscillation frequency displays either a well-pronounced maximum, both a maximum and a minimum or a sharp minimum only depending on the bias point of the EAM losses. Such features have been found experimentally in Marigo-Lombart et al., J. Physiscs: Photonics, 1, 2019, but remained unexplained hitherto. Furthermore, the cut-off frequency remains beyond 100 GHz for moderate and week coupling between the VCSEL and EAM cavities. Such ultrahigh bandwidth modulation is due to the fact that the changes of EAM impact much less the optical power distribution along the EAM-VCSEL and, consequently, the confinement factor and photon density in the VCSEL cavity. The three cases of strong, intermediate and weak coupling are also considered when carrying out the large-signal modulation response of the EAM-VCSEL and a clear open-eye diagram is demonstrated at 100 Gbs for an optimal EAM cavity length.
Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)1-13
Aantal pagina's13
TijdschriftApplied Sciences
Nummer van het tijdschrift17
StatusPublished - sep 2020


Duik in de onderzoeksthema's van 'Coupled-Cavity VCSEL with an Integrated Electro-Absorption Modulator: Small- and Large-Signal Modulation Analysis'. Samen vormen ze een unieke vingerafdruk.

Citeer dit