A modelling approach is presented that determines the most cost-effective set of reduction measures to reach an in-stream concentration target. The framework is based on the coupling of two models: the hydrological water quality model SWAT and an economic optimization model (Environmental Costing Model, ECM). SWAT is used to determine the relationship between the modelled in-stream concentration at the river basin outlet and the associated emission reduction. The ECM is used to set up marginal abatement cost curves for nutrients and oxygen demanding substances. Results for nitrogen are presented for the Grote Nete river basin in Belgium for the year 2006. Results show that the good status for total nitrogen can be reached in the study area. The most cost-effective measures are more productive dairy cattle, implementing basic measures as defined in the WFD, winter cover crops, improved efficiency of WWTP, enhanced fodder efficiency for pigs, further treatment of industrial waste water and tuned fertilization.
|Environmental Modelling & Software
|Published - jan 2011