Entropy is one of the most fundamental notions for understanding complexity. Among all the methods to calculate the entropy, sample entropy (SampEn) is a practical and common method to estimate time-series complexity. Unfortunately, SampEn is a time-consuming method growing in quadratic times with the number of elements, which makes this method unviable when processing large data series. In this work, we evaluate hardware SampEn architectures to offload computation weight, using improved SampEn algorithms and exploiting reconfigurable technologies, such as field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs), a reconfigurable technology well-known for its high performance and power efficiency. In addition to the fundamental disclosed straightforward SampEn (SF) calculation method, this study evaluates optimized strategies, such as bucket-assist (BA) SampEn and lightweight SampEn based on BubbleSort (BS-LW) and MergeSort (MS-LW) on an embedded CPU, a high-performance CPU and on an FPGA using simulated data and real-world electrocardiograms (ECG) as input data. Irregular storage space and memory access of enhanced algorithms is also studied and estimated in this work. These fast SampEn algorithms are evaluated and profiled using metrics such as execution time, resource use, power and energy consumption based on input data length. Finally, although the implementation of fast SampEn is not significantly faster than versions running on a high-performance CPU, FPGA implementations consume one or two orders of magnitude less energy than a high-performance CPU.
Bibliografische notaFunding Information:
This research was funded by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2019YFE0113800), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (62171123, 62071241, 62001111 and 81871444), the Distinguished Young Scholars of Jiangsu Province (BK20190014), China Scholarship Council (202106090175).
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