Experimental evaluation of the metal powder particle flow on the melt pool during directed energy deposition

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Laser metal deposition is an additive manufacturing process that allows the production of near net shape structures. Moreover, the process can also be applied for the addition of material to an existing component for repair. To obtain structures with reproducible and good characteristics, it is necessary to understand the powder particle flow and the corresponding melt pool flow better. One of the critical parameters in this process is the convection within the melt pool. This convection is directly impacted and driven by flow phenomena occurring at the melt pool surface. The convection influences the geometry of the melt pool including its shape, aspect ratio, and can provoke defects such as lack of fusion, porosities, and unstable dilution levels. The surface flow can also have a direct impact on the formation of surface ripples. In the pursuance of a better understanding of the melt pool surface flow behaviour a high-speed camera was applied at a framerate of 40000 frames per second with a specific illumination system. In this paper an optical set-up with a high-speed camera and illumination system will be described. The images were obtained during the laser metal deposition process of single tracks from stainless steel (316L). The set-up optimization and employed image processing techniques allowed the detection of floating (316L) powder particles on the melt-pool. The visualization of their trajectories on the melt pool surface will be presented and discussed. In literature this kind experimental evaluations typically apply tracer particles to simplify the detection of the particles. In the future the obtained experience can be used to generate more data, which can support the validation numerical simulation model results and support the development of monitoring solutions or controlling systems.
Originele taal-2English
Artikelnummer022008
TijdschriftJournal of Laser Applications
Volume35
Nummer van het tijdschrift2
DOI's
StatusPublished - 1 mei 2023

Bibliografische nota

Funding Information:
This work was financed by the Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO) through the Strategic Research Program Hi-PAS (S00931N) and junior post-doctoral mandate of Michaël Hinderdael under Ref. 12ZV920N.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 Author(s).

Copyright:
Copyright 2023 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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