Groundwater Vulnerability and Nitrate Contamination Assessment and Mapping Using DRASTIC and Geostatistical Analysis

Moustafa Elbaba, Prabin Kayastha, Florimond De Smedt, Marijke Huysmans

Onderzoeksoutput: Articlepeer review

10 Citaten (Scopus)
109 Downloads (Pure)


The Gaza Strip is in a chronic state of water shortage and the coastal aquifer as the only freshwater source is increasingly depleted and polluted, especially by nitrate. Assessment of groundwater vulnerability to pollution is essential for adequate protection and management. In this study, the assessment of the aquifer vulnerability to contamination is derived by applying the DRASTIC procedure, firstly with original default weights and ratings and, secondly, improved by estimating rating values by multiple linear regression of observed log-transformed nitrate concentration in groundwater, with DRASTIC factors extended to land-use. The results are very different because high and low vulnerability areas shift considerably. Subsequently, a geostatistical analysis of the spatial distribution of the nitrate concentration is performed, firstly by ordinary kriging interpolation of the observed nitrate concentration and secondly by regression kriging using DRASTIC factors and land-use as indicators of the spatial variation in nitrate occurrence. These maps differ because the map obtained by regression kriging interpolation shows much more details of environmental factors such as dunes, ridges, soil types and built-up areas that affect the presence of nitrate in groundwater. The results of this study can be used by the Palestinian authorities concerned with sustainable groundwater management in the Gaza Strip.
Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's19
Nummer van het tijdschrift7
StatusPublished - jul 2020

Bibliografische nota

Funding Information:
This research received no external funding. The first author gratefully acknowledges the support of Erasmus Mundus and the Vrije Universiteit Brussel for the financial support for his doctoral research. The authors are indebted to the Palestinian Water Authority, Meteorological Office, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health Water Laboratory, Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation and Almadinah Consultants for providing data and information.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 by the author.

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • DRASTIC; groundwater vulnerability; nitrate pollution; geo-statistics; Gaza Strip

Citeer dit