Bacterial biofilms constitute a critical problem in hospitals, especially in resuscitation units or for immunocompromised patients, since bacteria embedded in their own matrix are not only protected against antibiotics but also develop resistant variant strains. In the last decade, an original approach to prevent biofilm formation has consisted of studying the antibacterial potential of host communication molecules. Thus, some of these compounds have been identified for their ability to modify the biofilm formation of both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. In addition to their effect on biofilm production, a detailed study of the mechanism of action of these human hormones on bacterial physiology has allowed the identification of new bacterial pathways involved in biofilm formation. In this review, we focus on the impact of neuropeptidic hormones on bacteria, address some future therapeutic issues, and provide a new view of inter-kingdom communication.