In this paper a segmented Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) model is presented for alternative vehicle technologies as well as its extension with external costs related to vehicle ownership and use. Adding external costs to the TCO extends the interpretation of individual ownership to a societal perspective by describing the effect of the technologies on the costs for the society. This extension, called "Total Cost for Society", suggests that battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles have a lower societal cost than petrol, diesel and compressed natural gas vehicles.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)736-747
Aantal pagina's12
TijdschriftWorld Electric Vehicle Journal
Nummer van het tijdschrift4
StatusPublished - 2016


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