The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) is highly complex and understanding of disease endotypes may improve disease management. Immunoglobulins E (IgE) against human skin epitopes (IgE autoantibodies) are thought to play a role in disease progression and prolongation. These antibodies have been described in patients with severe and chronic AD, suggesting a progression from allergic inflammation to severe autoimmune processes against the skin. This review provides a summary of the current knowledge and gaps on IgE autoreactivity and self-reactive T cells in children and adults with AD based on a systematic search. Currently, the clinical relevance and the pathomechanism of IgE autoantibodies in AD needs to be further investigated. Additionally, it is unknown whether the presence of IgE autoantibodies in patients with AD is an epiphenomenon or a disease endotype. However, increased knowledge on the clinical relevance and the pathophysiologic role of IgE autoantibodies and self-reactive T cells in AD can have consequences for diagnosis and treatment. Responses to the current available treatments can be used for better understanding of the pathways and may shed new lights on the treatment options for patients with AD and autoreactivity against skin epitopes. To conclude, IgE autoantibodies and self-reactive T cells can contribute to the pathophysiology of AD based on the body of evidence in literature. However, many questions remain open. Future studies on autoreactivity in AD should especially focus on the clinical relevance, the contribution to the disease progression and chronicity on cellular level, the onset and therapeutic strategies.