Surface moisture plays a key role in limiting the aeolian transport on sandy beaches. However, the existing measurement techniques cannot adequately characterize the spatial and temporal distribution of the beach surface moisture. In this study, a mobile terrestrial LiDAR (MTL) is demonstrated as a promising method to detect the beach surface moisture using a phase-based Z&F/Leica HDS6100 laser scanner mounted on an all-terrain vehicle. Firstly, two sets of indoor calibration experiments were conducted so as to comprehensively investigate the effect of distance, incidence angle and sand moisture contents on the backscattered intensity by means of sand samples with an average grain diameter of 0.12 mm. A moisture estimation model was developed which eliminated the effects of the incidence angle and distance (it only relates to the target surface reflectance). The experimental results reveal both the distance and incidence angle influencing the backscattered intensity of the sand samples. The standard error of the moisture model amounts to 2.0% moisture, which is considerably lower than the results of the photographic method. Moreover, a field measurement was conducted using the MTL system on a sandy beach in Belgium. The accuracy and robustness of the beach surface moisture derived from the MTL data was evaluated. The results show that the MTL is a highly suitable technique to accurately and robustly measure the surface moisture variations on a sandy beach with an ultra-high spatial resolution (centimeter-level) in a short time span (12 × 200 m per minute).
Bibliografische notaFunding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the Chinese Scholarship Council, grant number 201406410069. The MTL measurements were performed within the CREST Project (www.crest-project.be), funded by the Strategic Basic Research (SBO) programme of the 'Instituut voor Innovatie door Wetenschap en Technologie' (IWT), grant number 150028.
Funding: This research was funded by the Chinese Scholarship Council, grant number 201406410069. The MTL measurements were performed within the CREST Project (www.crest-project.be), funded by the Strategic Basic Research (SBO) programme of the ‘Instituut voor Innovatie door Wetenschap en Technologie’ (IWT), grant number 150028.
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