Microbial ecology and metabolite dynamics of backslopped triticale sourdough productions and the impact of scale

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Triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack) is a hybrid of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.), combining the positive attributes of both cereals. However, it has not been exploited for sourdough production yet. Further, the effect of scale on sourdough production has not been investigated systematically up to now. The aims of the present study were to assess the microbial ecology and metabolomic output of eleven spontaneously fermented, backslopped sourdough productions made with triticale flour on a scale of 100, 200, 500, and 1000 g. The acidification profile [pH and total titratable acidity (TTA)], microbial diversity (culture-dependent and culture-independent), metabolite dynamics, and appropriate correlations were determined. After ten fermentation steps, different species of Lactobacillaceae were prevalent in the mature sourdoughs, in particular Latilactobacillus curvatus, Limosilactobacillus fermentum, and Pediococcus pentosaceus. The microbial diversity could be traced back to the grains and was also present in the milling fractions (flour, bran, and shorts). Furthermore, thanks to the use of Illumina-based high-throughput sequencing and an amplicon sequence variant (ASV) approach, the presence of undesirable bacterial groups (bacilli, clostridia, and enterobacteria) during the initial steps of the backslopping cycle was revealed, as well as a finetuned taxonomic diversity of the LAB genera involved. Small sourdough productions (100 and 200 g) selected for a lower species diversity and reached a stable consortium faster than large ones (500 and 1000 g). Although a comparable final pH of 3.6–4.0 was obtained, the TTA of small sourdoughs was lower than that of large ones. Regarding the metabolic output, the simultaneous production of mannitol and erythritol, beyond ethanol and glycerol, could be linked to sourdoughs in which Liml. fermentum was the sole LAB species present. Further, the use of the arginine deiminase pathway by P. pentosaceus and Liml. fermentum was obvious. An appropriate extraction method followed by liquid injection gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry allowed the quantification of interesting volatile organic compounds, such as ethyl lactate. These findings support the inclusion of triticale as a viable alternative to wheat or rye for the production of sourdoughs that can be integrated into bread-making production schemes.
Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)1-22
TijdschriftInternational Journal of Food Microbiology
StatusPublished - 2 jan 2024

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