This study's aim is threefold: (I) Evaluate movement quality parameters of gait in people with hip or knee osteoarthritis (OA) compared to asymptomatic controls from a single trunk-worn 3D accelerometer. (II) Evaluate the sensitivity of these parameters to capture changes at 6-weeks, 3-, 6-, and 12-months following total knee arthroplasty (TKA). (III) Investigate whether observed changes in movement quality from 6-weeks and 12-months post-TKA relates to changes in patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). We invited 20 asymptomatic controls, 20 people with hip OA, 18 people pre- and post-TKA to our movement lap. They wore a single trunk-worn accelerometer and walked at a self-selected speed. Movement quality parameters (symmetry, complexity, smoothness, and dynamic stability) were calculated from the 3D acceleration signal. Between groups and between timepoints comparisons were made, and changes in movement quality were correlated with PROMs. We found significant differences in symmetry and stability in both OA groups. Post-TKA, most parameters reflected an initial decrease in movement quality at 6-weeks post-TKA, which mostly normalised 6-months post-TKA. Finally, improved movement quality relates to improvements in PROMs. Thus, a single accelerometer can characterise movement quality in both OA groups and post-TKA. The correlation shows the potential to monitor movement quality in a clinical setting to inform objective, data-driven personalised rehabilitation.