Multi-isotopic and trace element evidence against different formation pathways for oyster microstructures

Niels J. de Winter, Linda K. Dämmer, Michaela Falkenroth, Gert Jan Reichart, Simone Moretti, Alfredo Martínez-García, Nils Höche, Bernd R. Schöne, Katerina Rodiouchkina, Steven Goderis, Frank Vanhaecke, Sonja M. van Leeuwen, Martin Ziegler

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Samenvatting

Shells of oysters (Ostreidae) are predominantly composed of foliated and chalky calcite microstructures. The formation process of the more porous chalky structure is subject to debate, with some studies suggesting that it is not formed directly by the oyster but rather through microbial mineralization within the shell. Here, this hypothesis is tested in modern shells of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) from coastal regions in France and the Netherlands. We combine measurements of stable carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and clumped isotope ratios with high-resolution spatially resolved element (Na, Mg, Cl, S, Mn and Sr) data and microscopic observations of chalky and foliated microstructures in the oyster shells. Our results show no isotopic differences between the different microstructures, arguing against formation of the chalky calcite by microorganisms. However, we observe a small difference in the oxygen isotope ratio (0.32‰) and clumped isotope composition (0.017‰) between the microstructures, which is likely caused by sampling biases due to seasonal differences in growth rate and the short timespan over which the chalky microstructure forms. We therefore recommend sampling profiles through the foliated microstructure to control for strong seasonal variability recorded in the shell which can bias environmental reconstructions. High-resolution (25–50 µm) Na, Mg, Cl, S, Mn and Sr profiles yield empirical distribution coefficients between seawater and shell calcite for these elements. Significant differences in element concentrations and distribution coefficients were confirmed between the two microstructures, likely reflecting differences in mineralization rates or inclusion of non-lattice-bound elements. Only Mg/Ca ratios in the foliated microstructure vary predictably with growth seasonality, and we show that these can be used to establish accurate oyster shell chronologies. The observed effect of mineralization rate on element incorporation into oyster shells should be considered while developing potential element proxies for paleoclimate reconstructions. Trace element proxies in oyster shells should be interpreted with caution, especially when element chemical properties were measured in different microstructures.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)326-352
Aantal pagina's27
TijdschriftGeochimica et Cosmochimica Acta
Volume308
DOI's
StatusPublished - 1 sep 2021

Bibliografische nota

Funding Information:
NdW is funded by a Marie Skłodowska Curie Individual Fellowship by the European Commission (843011-UNBIAS) and a Junior Postdoc Fellowship by the Flemish Research Council (FWO; 12ZB220N). GJR and LKD acknowledge funding from the Netherlands Earth System Science Center (NESSC; grant no. 024.002.001) from the Dutch Ministry for Education, Culture and Science (gravitation grant no. NWO 024.002.001). BRS gratefully acknowledges funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG; SCHO793/20+23). SG acknowledges support by the Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO) and Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO - Vlaanderen). FV, SG and KR thank FWO for financial support through the EOS-Excellence of Science program (ET-HoME - ID 30442502) and for providing the funding for the acquisition of the MC-ICP-MS instrumentation (ZW15-02 – G0H6216N). AMG and SM acknowledge support for nitrogen isotope analyses by the Max Planck Society. MZ acknowledges funding through the NWO VIDI project 016.161.365, which is financed by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). XRF instrumentation at the VUB was funded by Hercules infrastructure grants. The authors would like to thank Bart Lippens for help with sample preparation, Arnold van Dijk for laboratory assistance, Wim Boer and Piet van Gaever for vital technical support, Eric Wagemaakers for maintaining the NIOZ jetty continuous measurements, the participants of the 2017 and 2018 edition of the NIOZ Marine Masters Summer School for their contribution to this research and Prof. Philippe Claeys for providing access to the X-Ray Fluorescence platform of the AMGC research group of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel for elemental analyses.

Funding Information:
NdW is funded by a Marie Skłodowska Curie Individual Fellowship by the European Commission (843011-UNBIAS) and a Junior Postdoc Fellowship by the Flemish Research Council (FWO; 12ZB220N). GJR and LKD acknowledge funding from the Netherlands Earth System Science Center (NESSC; grant no. 024.002.001) from the Dutch Ministry for Education, Culture and Science (gravitation grant no. NWO 024.002.001). BRS gratefully acknowledges funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG; SCHO793/20+23). SG acknowledges support by the Belgian Science Policy (BELSPO) and Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO - Vlaanderen). FV, SG and KR thank FWO for financial support through the EOS-Excellence of Science program (ET-HoME - ID 30442502) and for providing the funding for the acquisition of the MC-ICP-MS instrumentation (ZW15-02 – G0H6216N). AMG and SM acknowledge support for nitrogen isotope analyses by the Max Planck Society. MZ acknowledges funding through the NWO VIDI project 016.161.365, which is financed by the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO). XRF instrumentation at the VUB was funded by Hercules infrastructure grants. The authors would like to thank Bart Lippens for help with sample preparation, Arnold van Dijk for laboratory assistance, Wim Boer and Piet van Gaever for vital technical support, Eric Wagemaakers for maintaining the NIOZ jetty continuous measurements, the participants of the 2017 and 2018 edition of the NIOZ Marine Masters Summer School for their contribution to this research and Prof. Philippe Claeys for providing access to the X-Ray Fluorescence platform of the AMGC research group of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel for elemental analyses.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Author(s)

Copyright:
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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