Neuropsychiatric Symptoms in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Dementia Due to AD: Relation With Disease Stage and Cognitive Deficits

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Background: The interaction between neuropsychiatric symptoms, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia is complex and remains to be elucidated. An additive or multiplicative effect of neuropsychiatric symptoms such as apathy or depression on cognitive decline has been suggested. Unraveling these interactions may allow the development of better prevention and treatment strategies. In the absence of available treatments for neurodegeneration, a timely and adequate identification of neuropsychiatric symptom changes in cognitive decline is highly relevant and can help identify treatment targets. Methods: An existing memory clinic-based research database of 476 individuals with MCI and 978 individuals with dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (AD) was reanalyzed. Neuropsychiatric symptoms were assessed in a prospective fashion using a battery of neuropsychiatric assessment scales: Middelheim Frontality Score, Behavioral Pathology in Alzheimer's Disease Rating Scale (Behave-AD), Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD), and Geriatric Depression Scale (30 items). We subtyped subjects suffering from dementia as mild, moderate, or severe according to their Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and compared neuropsychiatric scores across these groups. A group of 126 subjects suffering from AD with a significant cerebrovascular component was examined separately as well. We compared the prevalence, nature, and severity of neuropsychiatric symptoms between subgroups of patients with MCI and dementia due to AD in a cross-sectional analysis. Results: Affective and sleep-related symptoms are common in MCI and remain constant in prevalence and severity across dementia groups. Depressive symptoms as assessed by the CSDD further increase in severe dementia. Most other neuropsychiatric symptoms (such as agitation and activity disturbances) progress in parallel with severity of cognitive decline. There are no significant differences in neuropsychiatric symptoms when comparing "pure" AD to AD with a significant vascular component. Conclusion: Neuropsychiatric symptoms such as frontal lobe symptoms, psychosis, agitation, aggression, and activity disturbances increase as dementia progresses. Affective symptoms such as anxiety and depressive symptoms, however, are more frequent in MCI than mild dementia but otherwise remain stable throughout the cognitive spectrum, except for an increase in CSDD score in severe dementia. There is no difference in neuropsychiatric symptoms when comparing mixed dementia (defined here as AD + significant cerebrovascular disease) to pure AD.

Originele taal-2English
Artikelnummer707580
Aantal pagina's13
TijdschriftFrontiers in psychiatry
Volume12
DOI's
StatusPublished - 17 aug 2021

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Copyright © 2021 Wiels, Wittens, Zeeuws, Baeken and Engelborghs.

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