Amongst adults with chronic pain, overweight and obesity are highly prevalent. The association between chronic pain and overweight is driven by several explanations, including increased biomechanical load, changes in the gut microbiome, and low-grade (neuro)inflammation. Moreover, the link between overweight, obesity and chronic pain can best be considered from a lifestyle perspective. Since conservative treatment for chronic pain is often limited to short-term and small effects, addressing important comorbidities within a lifestyle approach could be the next step towards precision medicine for these patients. Indeed, evidence shows that combining weight reduction with conservative pain management is more effective to reduce pain and disability, compared to either intervention alone. This perspective article aims to update the reader with the current understanding of the possible explanatory mechanisms behind the interaction between overweight/obesity and chronic pain in an adult population. Second, this paper applies this knowledge to clinical practice, including assessment and conservative treatment of overweight/obesity in adults with chronic pain. Henceforth, clinical recommendations and guidelines are provided based on available scientific evidence and the authors' clinical expertise.
IMPACT: This paper will guide clinicians in the implementation of weight reduction programs within pain management.