Overview of the mechanisms regulating chemokine activity and availability

Anneleen Mortier, Jo Van Damme, Paul Proost

Onderzoeksoutput: Scientific reviewpeer review

76 Citaten (Scopus)


Physiological leukocyte homing and extravasation of leukocytes during inflammatory processes is directed by a number of proteins including adhesion molecules, proteases, cytokines and chemokines. Tight regulation of leukocyte migration is essential to ensure appropriate migration. A number of mechanisms exist that regulate leukocyte migration including up- or down-regulation of chemokine or chemokine receptor gene expression. However, chemokine availability in vivo also depends on the interaction of chemokines with specific glycosaminoglycans such as heparan sulfate on the surface of endothelial layers. Modification of the interaction of chemokines with these glycosaminoglycans alters the presentation of chemokines to chemokine receptors on circulating leukocytes. On top, binding of chemokines to atypical chemokine receptors that do not signal through G proteins affects chemokine availability on the endothelial layers. In addition to mechanisms that modulate chemokine availability, this review summarizes mechanisms that fine-tune chemokine function. These include synergy or antagonism between chemokines and alternative splicing of chemokine genes. Moreover, chemokines may be posttranslationally modified leading to molecules with enhanced or reduced potency to bind to G protein-coupled receptors or GAGs or generating chemokines with altered receptor specificity. Cross-talk between these different mechanisms generates a complex regulatory network that allows the organism to modulate leukocyte migration in a highly specific manner.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)2-9
Aantal pagina's8
TijdschriftImmunology Letters
Nummer van het tijdschrift1-2
StatusPublished - 30 jul 2012

Bibliografische nota

Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


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