Prokaryote toxin-antitoxin modules: complex regulation of an unclear function

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11 Citaten (Scopus)
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Samenvatting

Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are small operons in bacteria and archaea that encode a metabolic inhibitor (toxin) and a matching regulatory protein (antitoxin). While their biochemical activities are often well defined, their biological functions remain unclear. In type II TA modules, both toxin and antitoxin are proteins, and the antitoxin inhibits the biochemical activity of the toxin via complex formation with the toxin. The different TA modules vary significantly regarding structure and biochemical activity. Both regulation of protein activity by the antitoxin and regulation of transcription can be highly complex and sometimes show striking parallels between otherwise unrelated TA modules. Interplay between the multiple levels of regulation in the broader context of the cell as a whole is most likely required for optimum fine-tuning of these systems. Thus, TA modules can go through great lengths to prevent activation and to reverse accidental activation, in agreement with recent in vivo data. These complex mechanisms seem at odds with the lack of a clear biological function.
Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)1103-1113
Aantal pagina's11
TijdschriftProtein Sci
Volume30
Nummer van het tijdschrift6
DOI's
StatusPublished - jun 2021

Bibliografische nota

Funding Information:
Remy Loris received financial support from FWO-Vlaanderen (grants No. G.0226.17N and G.0033.20N) and the Onderzoeksraad of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (grant No SPR13). Yana Girardin was supported via a personal PhD grant from FWO-Vlaanderen (FWOTM961).

Funding Information:
Remy Loris received financial support from FWO‐Vlaanderen (grants No. G.0226.17N and G.0033.20N) and the Onderzoeksraad of the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (grant No SPR13). Yana Girardin was supported via a personal PhD grant from FWO‐Vlaanderen (FWOTM961).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. Protein Science published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of The Protein Society.

Copyright:
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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