Regional and fine-scale local adaptation in salinity tolerance in Daphnia inhabiting contrasting clusters of inland saline waters

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Samenvatting

Understanding the spatial scales at which organisms can adapt to strong natural and human-induced environmental gradients is important. Salinization is a key threat to biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and the provision of ecosystem services of freshwater systems. Clusters of naturally saline habitats represent ideal test cases to study the extent and scale of local adaptation to salinization. We studied local adaptation of the water flea Daphnia magna, a key component of pond food webs, to salinity in two contrasting landscapes—a dense cluster of sodic bomb crater ponds and a larger-scale cluster of soda pans. We show regional differentiation in salinity tolerance reflecting the higher salinity levels of soda pans versus bomb crater ponds. We found local adaptation to differences in salinity levels at the scale of tens of metres among bomb crater pond populations but not among geographically more distant soda pan populations. More saline bomb crater ponds showed an upward shift of the minimum salt tolerance observed across clones and a consequent gradual loss of less tolerant clones in a nested pattern. Our results show evolutionary adaptation to salinity gradients at different spatial scales, including fine-tuned local adaptation in neighbouring habitat patches in a natural landscape.
Originele taal-2English
Artikelnummer20231917
Aantal pagina's11
TijdschriftProceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences
Volume291
Nummer van het tijdschrift2016
DOI's
StatusPublished - 7 feb 2024

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© 2024 Royal Society Publishing. All rights reserved.

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