School greening: Right or privilege? Examining urban nature within and around primary schools through an equity lens

Francesc Baró, David A. Camacho, Carmen Pérez Del Pulgar, Margarita Triguero-Mas, Isabelle Anguelovski

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12 Citaten (Scopus)
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A mounting body of research shows strong positive associations between urban nature and child well-being, including benefits related to mental and physical health. However, there is also evidence that children are spending less time in natural environments than previous generations, especially those living in deprived neighborhoods. To date, most studies analyzing children's (unequal) exposure or access to urban green and blue spaces focus on residential metrics while a school-based perspective, also an essential part of children's daily experience, is still understudied. The overall goal of this research is to assess spatially the amount and main components of green infrastructure within and around a sample of primary schools (n = 324) in the city of Barcelona, Spain, and to examine the equity implications of its distributional patterns. A multi-method approach based on GIS, correlation and cluster analyses, and an online survey, is used to identify these patterns of inequity according to three main dimensions: socio-demographic disparities across neighborhoods; school type (public, charter and private); and the frequency of outdoor educational activities organized by schools. Results show that schools located in the wealthiest neighborhoods are generally greener, but inequities are not observed for school surrounding green infrastructure indicators such as access to public green spaces or between public and charter schools. Survey results also indicate that greener schools generally organize more nature-based outdoor activities than those with less exposure to urban nature. In the light of these findings, we contend that multiple indicators of green infrastructure and different dimensions of equity should be considered to improve justice in the implementation of school-based re-naturing and outdoor educational programs.
Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's11
TijdschriftLandscape and Urban Planning
StatusPublished - 1 apr 2021

Bibliografische nota

Funding Information:
We thank our colleagues from BCNUEJ, James Connolly, Helen Cole, Melissa García-Lamarca and Galia Shokry for their valuable comments on an early version of the manuscript. We are also grateful to all the schools who answered the online survey. Authors acknowledge financial support from: the LASEG research group through the AGAUR grant 2017SGR0775; the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities through the 2015-2016 BiodivERsA COFUND (project ENABLE, code PCIN-2016-002); the European Research Council (project GREENLULUs; grant agreement ID: 678034); and the EU’s Horizon 2020 framework program for research and innovation (project NATURVATION, grant agreement ID: 730243). MTM is funded by Juan de la Cierva fellowships [FJCI-2017-33842] awarded by the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities. This work also contributes to the “María de Maeztu” Programme for Units of Excellence of the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation (CEX2019-000940-M). Finally, we also appreciate the work of three anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments and suggestions to the original version of the manuscript.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 The Author(s)

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