The effect of a combined lifestyle intervention with and without protein drink on inflammation in older adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes

Robert G Memelink, Rose Njemini, Minse J J de Bos Kuil, Suzan Wopereis, Johan de Vogel-van den Bosch, Josje D Schoufour, Michael Tieland, Peter J M Weijs, Ivan Bautmans

Onderzoeksoutput: Articlepeer review


BACKGROUND: Chronic low-grade inflammatory profile (CLIP) is one of the pathways involved in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Currently, there is limited evidence for ameliorating effects of combined lifestyle interventions on CLIP in type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether a 13-week combined lifestyle intervention, using hypocaloric diet and resistance exercise plus high-intensity interval training with or without consumption of a protein drink, affected CLIP in older adults with T2D.

METHODS: In this post-hoc analysis of the PROBE study 114 adults (≥55 years) with obesity and type 2 (pre-)diabetes had measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP), pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, tumor-necrosis-factor (TNF)-α, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist (RA), and soluble tumor-necrosis-factor receptor (sTNFR)1, adipokines leptin and adiponectin, and glycation biomarkers carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) from fasting blood samples. A linear mixed model was used to evaluate change in inflammatory biomarkers after lifestyle intervention and effect of the protein drink. Linear regression analysis was performed with parameters of body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and parameters of insulin resistance (by oral glucose tolerance test).

RESULTS: There were no significant differences in CLIP responses between the protein and the control groups. For all participants combined, IL-1RA, leptin and adiponectin decreased after 13 weeks (p = 0.002, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001), while ratios TNF-α/IL-10 and TNF-α/IL-1RA increased (p = 0.003 and p = 0.035). CRP increased by 12 % in participants with low to average CLIP (pre 1.91 ± 0.39 mg/L, post 2.13 ± 1.16 mg/L, p = 0.006) and decreased by 36 % in those with high CLIP (pre 5.14 mg/L ± 1.20, post 3.30 ± 2.29 mg/L, p < 0.001). Change in leptin and IL-1RA was positively associated with change in fat mass (β = 0.133, p < 0.001; β = 0.017, p < 0.001) and insulin resistance (β = 0.095, p = 0.024; β = 0.020, p = 0.001). Change in lean mass was not associated with any of the biomarkers.

CONCLUSION: 13 weeks of combined lifestyle intervention, either with or without protein drink, reduced circulating adipokines and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-1RA, and increased inflammatory ratios TNF-α/IL-10 and TNF-α/IL-1RA in older adults with obesity and T2D. Effect on CLIP was inversely related to baseline inflammatory status.

Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's10
TijdschriftExperimental Gerontology
Vroegere onlinedatum2024
StatusPublished - 1 jun 2024

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