Zika virus (ZIVK) represents a new threat to global health, with particular relevance to neuroscientists, due to associated newborn and adult neurological disease. Consequences of vertical infection include microcephaly with brain and eye anomalies, and consequences of adult infection include Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and meningoencephalitis. Recent data suggest specific vulnerability of neural progenitors to infection, leading to cell death and brain calcification, reminiscent of other viral syndromes. Prevailing models suggest entry into neuronal stem cells through transmembrane receptors, hijacking cellular signaling to interfere with neurogenesis and cell survival. Mechanisms of adult neurological disease are unknown, but recent evidence suggests propensity for infection of adult neural stem cells. Efforts focused on mechanisms of pathogenesis, vulnerabilities, and treatments are urgently needed.