Electric vehicles (EV) are foreseen as one major technology toward decarbonizing the mobility sector. At the same time, Vehicle to Grid (V2G) technology opens a new market for EV owners. This article identifies the impacts of providing V2G services on the Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) of EVs. Thus, we studied EVs in private, semi-public and public charging cases, considering two different V2G revenue streams. The included V2G services were: (i) local load balancing to balance the peaks and valleys of the electricity demands of buildings and (ii) an imbalance service to enhance grid stability. In this paper, the impact of these two V2G services is quantified and considered in the TCO calculations. To the authors’ knowledge, no comparable study incorporating the same V2G services exists in the literature. The TCO is calculated with real-life data for four different EVs currently available in the market. As a result, the V2G TCO ranges from €33.167 to €61.436 over an average of nine years for the Flanders region (Belgium).
Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)236
Aantal pagina's39
TijdschriftWorld Electric Vehicle Journal
Nummer van het tijdschrift4
StatusPublished - dec 2021


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