Xanthones are a class of heterocyclic natural products that have been widely studied for their pharmacological potential. In fact, they have been serving as scaffolds for the design of derivatives focusing on drug development. One of the main study targets of xanthones is their anticancer activity. Several compounds belonging to this class have already demonstrated cytotoxic and antitumor effects, making it a promising group for further exploration. This review therefore focuses on recently published studies, emphasizing their natural and synthetic sources and describing the main mechanisms of action responsible for the anticancer effect of promising xanthones.