Antenna elements and arrays for active millimeter wave imaging

Scriptie/masterproef: Doctoral Thesis


This Ph.D. thesis deals with the study of the possible scenarios of integrating Frequency Selective Surfaces based on slot antenna arrays as quasi-optical elements in active millimeter wave imaging systems for improving noise artifacts. Active millimeter wave systems for detection of concealed objects in security applications are typically operating in the W-band (75-110 GHz). This spectral band yields a good compromise between image resolution and penetration depth through the whole set of materials in the visible range.
First we will present an overview of the needs for active illumination techniques in mm wave imaging systems and discuss the issues related to the coherence degree of active sources in imaging applications. In the following chapters frequency selective surfaces on the basis of slot antenna arrays are theoretically and experimentally studied for the purpose of reducing the coherence related artifacts of mm wave images by diversifying the illumination patterns.
Theoretical aspects and analysis methods of FFSs are discussed and compared. Fundamental geometrical topologies and material parameters which determine their resonance behavior are investigated. We considered the impact of technological processes and related tolerances. For the imaging application grounded versus non-grounded slot antenna arrays are theoretically and experimentally compared and finally the grounded FSS has been proposed for the reduction of noise artifacts in active mm-wave imaging due to their wider band width and functionalities.
As commercial software packages such as Microwave Studio of CST can only treat infinite × infinite arrays, hence there is a need for experimental work in this field for getting more in depth insight into the peculiarities of reduced dimensions of the arrays. Only recently advanced numerical techniques have been developed by INTEC-UG to predict theoretically the behavior of finite × finite antenna arrays in compare to the illumination beam size. Experimental works have been compared to these techniques.
Different applications for the FSSs are proposed and experimentally tested: e.g. quasi-optical deterministic functions such a beam splitting, beam bending, a pseudo-random diffuser, coherence destroying diffuser and a digital diffuser of stochastic independent antenna phase patterns. The latter one is based on orthogonal Hadamard phase patterns and could only be realized on the basis artificially magnetic conductors. The W-band Artificial Magnetic Conductor has been investigated and tested. Finally first applications in real imaging applications are discussed.
Datum Prijs26 mrt 2010
BegeleiderJohan Stiens (Promotor), Roger Vounckx (Promotor), Erik Stijns (Jury), Rik Pintelon (Jury), Gert Poesen (Jury), Piet Wambacq (Jury), B. Nauwelaers (Jury) & Dieter Jaeger (Jury)

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